The information of the postponement of Roland Garros to September has not completed properly in the world of tennis. A number of tennis players on the ATP and WTA circuits have criticized the methods wherein they’ve realized of the unilateral choice of the Parisian Grand Slam to maneuver the event only a week after the conclusion of the US Open and have criticized the French event for its abrupt choice.One of the most crucial was the Argentine Diego Schwartzman, who has already charged the ATP for the methods to announce the suspension of the Indian Wells Masters 1,000, and who this time criticized Roland Garros with this message. “As soon as once more … we came upon on Twitter,” lamented the ‘Peque’, with point out of the ATP.The Canadian additionally loaded exhausting Vasek Pospisil. The Canadian wrote the following message after studying of the choice however deleted it shortly after. “It’s insane. Nice announcement for Roland Garros altering its date only one week after the US Open. No communication with the players or the ATP. We do NOT have a say on this sport. It’s time for the players to unite. “The Canadian later softened his message.” These are tough instances. Everyone seems to be shocked by this disaster. Bettering communication and dealing collectively to search out options ought to be the precedence. Egocentric and conceited selections shouldn’t be made that might negatively impression the circuit. “ Discover me 1 participant who knew that call 🤔🧐😂– Stanislas Wawrinka (@stanwawrinka) March 17, 2020With extra humor he took it Mardy Fish, captain of the Davis Cup staff from the United States: “Whoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa’a’a’C’L’ot not be lacking the clay season in spite of everything.”The information of the postponement of Roland Garros has not sat properly in ladies’s tennis both. The French Alizé Cornet was resounding when seeing the information on social networks. “It’s okay to search out out on Twitter.” He was additionally stunned Swiss Stan Wawrinka, who came upon about the choice whereas collaborating in a radio program and who, requested if he had something to do with the choice, answered with a powerful “Discover a participant who knew the choice.” That is such a tough time. Everyone seems to be being impacted by this disaster. Enhancing communication & working collectively to search out options ought to be the precedence. Not going Rogue & making egocentric / conceited selections to additional impression the tour in a destructive approach. #Roland Garros– Vasek Pospisil (@VasekPospisil) March 17, 2020 Sympa de l’apprendre sur Twitter 👍– Alize Cornet (@alizecornet) March 17, 2020Romanian Sorana Cirstea He additionally criticized the methods wherein he came upon about the information, as he did so through Twitter as a substitute of through electronic mail or a WTA notification. “What? One other time I discover out through Twitter …”The Japanese additionally confirmed her shock Naomi Osaka with an expressive “Excuse me?”From RMC they level out that Man Overlook knowledgeable the choice to players like Rafa Nadal, who gave his approval for the large clay court docket occasion to happen, as the president of the French Tennis Federation Bernard Giudicelli identified.
Source:https://www.bcm.edu/news/neuroscience/scientists-unexpected-results-research-tool Aug 14 2018Puzzled by their experimental results, a team of scientists from Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital investigated why a research tool that was expected to suppress neuronal activity actually was stimulating it. Their findings led them to modify the research tool in ways that minimize the undesired effects, transforming it into a more useful technique to study neuronal function. The study appears in eLife.”One of the research goals of our laboratory is to understand how different classes of neurons in brain circuits interact with each other to perform their functions,” said corresponding author Dr. Mingshan Xue, assistant professor of neuroscience and of molecular and human genetics at Baylor College of Medicine, Caroline DeLuca Scholar and member of the Cain Foundation Laboratories and the Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute at Texas Children’s Hospital. “One way to study neuronal function is by altering the activity of the neurons and then observe the outcomes, just like in genetics where scientists modify a gene to determine what it might do.”Xue and his colleagues initially wanted to study the effect of inhibiting the activity of specific neurons in the visual cortex of mice. They used an optogenetic approach by which they genetically introduced into specific neurons a light-sensitive protein called light-gated chloride channel GtACR2, which was assumed to be an inhibitor of neural activity. The researchers then activated the inhibitory effect of GtACR2 by shining a light on the modified cells. It was expected that once it was light-activated, GtACR2 would inhibit the output of the neuronal activity, which the researchers measured as release of neurotransmitters.”We expected that GtACR2 would inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, but surprisingly the neurons did just the opposite,” said first author Jessica Messier, who is a McNair M.D./Ph.D. Scholar in the Medical Scientist Training Program at Baylor College of Medicine. “We were puzzled by these unexpected results and investigated the causes.”How neurons workNeurons receive signals from other neurons through a part of the cell called the cell body, commanding it to either ‘fire’ or ‘not fire’ signals. If the command is ‘fire,’ then the cell body will send the signal down the axon, the long threadlike extension of the cell that connects the neuron with others. Neurotransmitters will be released from the axon’s endings passing on signals to the next neuron. If, on the other hand, the cell body receives a ‘no fire’ signal, then it won’t send a signal down the axon.Related StoriesUsing Light Scattering to Characterize Protein-Nucleic Acid InteractionsUsing NMR to Study Protein Structure, Dynamics and MechanismsDynamic Light Scattering measurements in concentrated solutions”When we used the light-gated channel GtACR2, we expected to silence the cell body, so no matter which signal it received, the cell body would not send a signal down the axon. But we found that even though the cell body was indeed silenced, signals still ran through the axon and neurotransmitters were released,” Messier said.When activated, channel GtACR2 opens a door on the cells through which negatively charged chloride ions flow, from where their concentration is higher toward where it is lower. The flow of chloride ions from inside the neuron toward the outside triggers a ‘fire’ signal, while the opposite, flow of negative ions from the outside to the inside of the cells, results in a ‘no fire’ signal. Usually, chloride concentration is higher outside of the cell than in the inside, so when channel GtACR2 opens, ions flow toward the inside of the cell, which results in a ‘no fire’ signal. That’s why chloride channels usually inhibit neuronal activity.”However, we found that, in the particular neurons we were studying, the chloride ion concentration inside the cell body is lower than the concentration outside of the cell, but inside the axon it is the opposite, the concentration of chloride ions is higher inside than on the outside,” Xue said. “This difference in chloride ion concentration between the cell body and the axon of the same cell explained why channel GtACR2 triggered a ‘no fire’ response in the cell body and a ‘fire’ response in the axon.”To minimize the ‘fire’ signal running through the axon, the researchers modified channel GtACR2 so it would be mostly expressed in the cell body, and not in the axons.”Relocating channel GtACR2 to the cell body significantly reduced the signals running through the axon, but there is still room for improvement,” Xue said. “This approach also enhanced the inhibitory effect in the cell body and resulted in increased inhibition of the activity of the neuron. A take home message for us is that this light-gated inhibitory channel can be used, but it’s important to take into consideration the effects it can have in different parts of the cell.””The phenomenon we describe here also has other implications. One is that this channel itself has now become a tool to study chloride concentrations in different compartments within neurons, such as the axons, which are very small and hard to study,” Messier said. “Second, the improvements that we made to channel GtACR2 to minimize the undesired effects also gave us future direction toward how to further improve the tool.”